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Science 7 - Parent/Community Course Guide

Adopted by Board of School Directors on April 2015
Grade Levels
: 07 |


Course Description
:


Biology is the study of life. The course involves science as inquiry and discusses the structure and function of the various levels of life. Topics include characteristics of living things, chemistry of life, metric system, scientific method, cell structure, cellular organization, cell processes, cell reproduction, DNA, heredity and genetics, classification, taxonomy, viruses, kingdoms of life, ecology, biomes, and microscopes. This survey course in Biology involves presentations, demonstrations, discussions, laboratory exercises, computer simulations and collaborative activities.



Core Curriculum Content Standards
:


PSSA Anchors

Science
Grade 5
Biological Sciences
Structure and Function of Organisms
Describe how the cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things.
  • Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells. (S5.B.1.1.1)
  • Explain the concept of the cell as the basic structural unit of all living things. (S5.B.1.1.2)
  • Compare the structure and function of basic cell parts in organisms (i.e., plants and animals). (S5.B.1.1.3)
  • Continuity of Life
    Explain how certain inherited traits and/or behaviors allow some organisms to survive and reproduce more successfully than others.
  • Explain how inherited traits help organisms survive and reproduce in different environments. (S5.B.2.1.2)
  • Explain how certain behaviors help organisms survive and reproduce in different environments. (S5.B.2.1.3)
  • Identify changes in environmental conditions that can affect the survival of populations and entire species. (S5.B.2.1.4)
  • Ecological Behavior and Systems
    Describe the relationships between organisms in different ecosystems.
  • Describe the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers within a local ecosystem. (S5.B.3.1.1)
  • Describe the relationships between organisms in different food webs. (S5.B.3.1.2)

  • Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs. (S5.B.3.2)
  • Identify fossil fuels and alternative fuels used by humans. (S5.B.3.2.1)
  • Describe the usefulness of EarthÕs physical resources as raw materials for the human_made world. (S5.B.3.2.2)
  • Explain how different items are recycled and reused. (S5.B.3.2.3)
  • Grade 6
    The Nature of Science
    Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole.
  • Describe a system as a group of related parts with specific roles that work together to achieve an observed result. (S6.A.3.1.1)
  • Explain how components of natural and human-made systems play different roles in a working system. (S6.A.3.1.2)
  • Biological Sciences
    Structure and Function of Organisms
    Explain how the cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things.
  • Describe how cells carry out the many functions needed to sustain life. (S6.B.1.1.1)
  • Identify examples of unicellular and multi-cellular organisms (i.e., plants, fungi, bacteria, protista, and animals). (S6.B.1.1.2)
  • Explain how many organisms are unicellular and must carry out all life functions in one cell. (S6.B.1.1.3)

  • Continuity of Life
  • Explain how certain inherited traits and/or behaviors allow some organisms to survive and reproduce more successfully than others. (S6.B.2.1)
  • Distinguish between instinctive and learned animal behaviors that relate to survival. (S6.B.2.1.1)
  • Recognize that extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival. (S6.B.2.1.2)

  • Ecological Behavior and Systems
  • Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. (S6.B.3.1)
  • Describe the behavioral and physical responses of organisms to environmental changes and how those responses affect survival. (S6.B.3.1.1)

  • Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs. (S6.B.3.2)
  • Compare the usage of fossil fuels and alternative energy resources (e.g., oil, natural gas, coal, wind, solar, water). (S6.B.3.2.1)

  • Grade 7
    The Nature of Science
    Reasoning and Analysis
  • Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (visuals, scenarios, graphs). (S7.A.1.1)
  • Distinguish between a scientific theory and a general opinion, explaining how a theory is supported with evidence. (S7.A.1.1.1)
  • Develop questions that can be answered through scientific inquiry and/or technological design. (S7.A.1.1.2)
  • Use evidence such as observations or experimental results to support inferences. (S7.A.1.1.3)
  • Use evidence to develop descriptions, explanations, and models. (S7.A.1.1.4)

  • Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused measurable changes in natural or human-made systems. (S7.A.1.3)
  • Describe how variables can cause changes in a system over time. (S7.A.1.3.1)
  • Use evidence, observations, or explanations to make inferences about changes in systems over time (e.g., carrying capacity, succession, fossil evidence in the geologic time scale). (S7.A.1.3.2)
  • Processes, Procedures, and Tools of Scientific Investigations
    Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to make inferences, solve problems, and/or answer questions.
  • Use evidence from investigations to clearly describe relationships and communicate and support conclusions. (S7.A.2.1.1)
  • Select and safely use appropriate tools and describe the information provided by each tool.
  • Describe the safe and appropriate use of instruments and scales to accurately and safely make measurements under a variety of conditions. (S7.A.2.2.1)
  • Apply measurement systems to record and interpret observations under a variety of conditions. (S7.A.2.2.2)
  • Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole.
  • Describe a system (e.g., ecosystem, circulatory system, agricultural system) as a group of related parts with specific roles that work together to achieve an observed result. (S7.A.3.1.1)
  • Explain the concept of order in a system (e.g., first to last manufacturing steps; trophic levels; simple to complexÑlevels of biological organization from cell to organism). (S7.A.3.1.2)
  • Identify examples of open- and closedlooped systems. (S7.A.3.1.4)

  • Biological Sciences
    Structure and Function of Organisms
  • Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. (S7.B.1.1)
  • Describe levels of biological organization from cell to organism. (S7.B.1.1.1)
  • Describe how specific structures in living things (from cell to organism) help them function effectively in specific ways (e.g., chlorophyll in plant cellsÑ photosynthesis; root hairsÑincreased surface area; beak structures in birdsÑ food gathering; cacti spinesÑprotection from predators). (S7.B.1.1.2)
  • Explain how characteristic similarities and differences (from cell to organism) are used to identify and/or categorize organisms. (S7.B.1.1.3)

  • Compare methods of reproduction. (S7.B.1.2)
  • Explain how cells arise from the division of a pre-existing cell. (S7.B.1.2.1)
  • Compare various basic sexual and asexual reproductive processes (e.g., budding, cuttings). (S7.B.1.2.2)
  • Explain why the life cycles of different organisms have varied lengths. (S7.B.1.2.3)

  • Continuity of Life
  • Explain natural selection and itsrole in evolution. (S7.B.2.1)
  • Explain how inherited traits (genes) and/or behaviors help organisms survive and reproduce in different environments. (S7.B.2.1.1)
  • Describe how natural selection is an underlying factor in a populationÕs ability to adapt to change. (S7.B.2.1.2)
  • Explain that adaptations within species (physical, behavioral, physiological) are developed over long periods of time. (S7.B.2.1.3)
  • Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms.
  • Identify and explain differences between inherited and acquired traits. (S7.B.2.2.1)
  • Recognize evidence that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance and explain the effect of dominant and recessive genes on inherited traits. (S7.B.2.2.2)
  • Explain how mutations can alter a gene and are a source of new variations in a population. (S7.B.2.2.3)
  • Describe how selective breeding or biotechnologies can change the genetic makeup of an organism (e.g., domesticated dogs, horses, cows; crops, hybrid plants; integrated pest management). (S7.B.2.2.4)
  • Ecological Behavior and Systems
    Compare the biotic and abiotic factors of different ecosystems and explain relationships between and these factors.
  • Describe relationships (e.g., predator/prey competition, symbiosis) between organisms in different ecosystems. (S7.B.3.1.1)
  • Identify the major biomes (terrestrial and aquatic) and describe their characteristic biotic and abiotic factors. (S7.B.3.1.2)

  • Explain ways different variables may cause and/or influence changes in natural or humanmade systems (S7.B.3.2)
  • Identify and describe factors that cause and/or influence changes in populations (e.g., deforestation, disease, land use, natural disaster, invasive species). (S7.B.3.2.1)
  • Explain how diversity affects the integrity of natural ecological systems. (S7.B.3.2.2)
  • Describe how human interactions with the environment impact an ecosystem (e.g., road construction, pollution, urban development, dam building/removal). (S7.B.3.2.3)
  • Explain how changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of a population and entire species (e.g., climate, hibernation, migration, coloration). (S7.B.3.2.4)

  • Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs and how these needs impact the environment. (S7.B.3.3)
  • Explain how renewable and/or nonrenewable resources provide for human needs (i.e., energy, food, water, clothing, and shelter). (S7.B.3.3.1)
  • Explain how the use of renewable and/or nonrenewable resources affects the environment. (S7.B.3.3.2)

  • Grade 8
    The Nature of Science
    Systems, Models, and Patterns
  • Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. (S8.A.3.1)
  • Describe a system (e.g., watershed, circulatory system, heating system, agricultural system) as a group of related parts with specific roles that work together to achieve an observed result. (S8.A.3.1.1)
  • Explain the concept of order in a system [e.g., (first to last: manufacturing steps, trophic levels); (simple to complex: cell, tissue, organ, organ system)]. (S8.A.3.1.2)
  • Distinguish among system inputs, system processes, system outputs, and feedback (e.g., physical, ecological, biological, informational). (S8.A.3.1.3)
  • Distinguish between open loop (e.g., energy flow, food web) and closed loop (e.g., materials in the nitrogen and carbon cycles, closed-switch) systems. (S8.A.3.1.4)
  • Explain how components of natural and human-made systems play different roles in a working system. (S8.A.3.1.5)

  • Biological Sciences
    Structure and Function of Organisms
  • Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. (S8.B.1.1)
  • Describe the structures of living things that help them function effectively in specific ways (e.g., adaptations, characteristics). (S8.B.1.1.1)
  • Compare similarities and differences in internal structures of organisms (e.g., invertebrate/vertebrate, vascular/nonvascular, singlecelled/ multi-celled) and external structures (e.g., appendages, body segments, type of covering, size, shape). (S8.B.1.1.2)
  • Apply knowledge of characteristic structures to identify or categorize organisms (i.e., plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and protista). (S8.B.1.1.3)
  • Identify the levels of organization from cell to organism and describe how specific structures (parts), which underlie larger systems, enable the system to function as a whole. (S8.B.1.1.4)
  • Continuity of Life
    Explain the basic concepts of natural selection.
  • Explain how inherited structures or behaviors help organisms survive and reproduce in different environments. (S8.B.2.1.1)
  • Explain how different adaptations in individuals of the same species may affect survivability or reproduction success. (S8.B.2.1.2)
  • Explain that mutations can alter a gene and are the original source of new variations. (S8.B.2.1.3)
  • Describe how selective breeding or biotechnology can change the genetic makeup of organisms. (S8.B.2.1.4)
  • Explain that adaptations are developed over long periods of time and are passed from one generation to another. (S8.B.2.1.5)

  • Explain how a set of genetic instructions determines inherited traits of organisms. (S8.B.2.2)
  • Identify and explain differences between inherited and acquired traits. (S8.B.2.2.1)
  • Recognize that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance, that there are dominant and recessive genes, and that traits are inherited. (S8.B.2.2.2)
  • Ecological Behavior and Systems
    Explain the relationships among and between organisms in different ecosystems and their abiotic and biotic components
  • Explain the flow of energy through an ecosystem (e.g., food chains, food webs). (S8.B.3.1.1)
  • Identify major biomes and describe abiotic and biotic components (e.g., abiotic: different soil types, air, water sunlight; biotic: soil microbes, decomposers). (S8.B.3.1.2)
  • Explain relationships among organisms (e.g., producers/consumers, predator/prey) in an ecosystem. (S8.B.3.1.3)

  • Identify evidence of change to infer and explain the ways different variables may affect change in natural or human-made systems. (S8.B.3.2)
  • Use evidence to explain factors that affect changes in populations (e.g., deforestation, disease, land use, natural disaster, invasive species). (S8.B.3.2.1)
  • Use evidence to explain how diversity affects the ecological integrity of natural systems. (S8.B.3.2.2)
  • Describe the response of organisms to environmental changes (e.g., changes in climate, hibernation, migration, coloration) and how those changes affect survival. (S8.B.3.2.3)

  • Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs or how these needs impact the environment. (S8.B.3.3)
  • Explain how human activities may affect local, regional, and global environments. (S8.B.3.3.1)
  • Explain how renewable and nonrenewable resources provide for human needs (i.e., energy, food, water, clothing, and shelter). (S8.B.3.3.2)
  • Describe how waste management affects the environment (e.g., recycling, composting, landfills, incineration, sewage treatment). (S8.B.3.3.3)
  • Explain the long-term effects of using integrated pest management (e.g., herbicides, natural predators, biogenetics) on the environment. (S8.B.3.3.4)


  • Units
    :


    Unit #1 - Scientific Inquiry
    Unit #2 - Introduction to Life Science
    Unit #3 - The Cell
    Unit #4 - Cellular Processes
    Unit #5 - Cellular Division
    Unit #6 - DNA
    Unit #7 - Genetics
    Unit #8 - Adaptations
    Unit #9 - Ecology
    Unit #10 - Cycles in Nature
    Unit #11 - Environmental
    Unit #12 - Classification and Taxonomy


    Course Resources
    :